After understanding the fundamentals of fog computing also known as edge computing in our recent post given by @ajinkya777  let us proceed further to more interesting topics related to it. For those who have missed the introduction can refer here to revise it before we move on to more detailed concepts. [Introduction to Edge computing] 


  1. Augmented Reality (AR)  and Real-time video analytics
  2.  Smart Grids
  3.  Health Care 
  4. Connected car
  5.  Internet of Things(IoT) 
  6.  Mobile Big Data Analytics
  7. Smart Traffic Lights
  8.  Mobile computing system
  9. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs)
  10.  Decentralized Smart Building Control

1.Augmented Reality (AR)  and Real-time video analytics:

Augment reality applications are popular on a smartphone, tablet, and smart glasses by overlaying an informative view of the real world.AR applications usually need high computation power to process video streaming and high bandwidth for data transmission.

For example, a normal AR application needs to process real-time video frame using computer vision algorithm and at the same time process other inputs such as voice, sensor and finally, output timely informational content on displays. Augmented reality applications are highly latency-intolerant as even very small delays in the response can damage the user experience.

AR system supported by fog computing can maximize throughput and reduce latency in both processing and transmission.With the help of fog, we can achieve real-time processing and feedback of high-volume video streaming and scalability of service on low-bandwidth output data.

2. Smart Grids:

The smart grid is an electricity distribution network, with smart meters deployed at various locations to measure the real-time status information. A centralized server called SCADA system gathers and analyzes the status information, and sends commands to respond to any demand change or emergency to stabilize the power grid.

With Fog computing, SCADA can be complemented by a decentralized model with micro-grids, which can not only improve scalability, cost efficiency, security, and rapid response of the power system but also integrate distributed power generators  (wind farms, solar panels, and PHEVs) with the main power grid.With fog computing, the smart grid will turn into a multitier hierarchical system with the interplay between the fog and SCADA.

Image result for smart grids
Smart Grid

3. Health Care 

Fog computing could be useful in healthcare, in which real-time processing and event response is critical. One proposed system utilizes fog computing to detect, predict, and prevent falls by stroke patients.A proposed fog computing–based the smart-healthcare system enables low latency, mobility support, and location and privacy awareness.

Health data management has been a sensitive issue since health data contains valuable and private information. With fog computing, it is able to realize the goal that patient will take possession of their own health data locally. Those health data will be stored in fog nodes such as a smartphone or smart vehicle.

4.Connected car:

The autonomous vehicle is the new trend taking place on the road. A software is used to add automatic steering, enabling literal “hands-free operations of the vehicle.Cars on the road will have the capability to connect to cars nearby and the internet.

Fog computing will be the best option for all internet-connected vehicles because fog computing gives real-time interaction. Cars, access point, and traffic lights will be able to interact with each other and so it makes safe for all.

5. Internet of Things (IoT) :

We have already discussed in our previous posts about how fog computing is an optimal solution for IoT devices. click here to learn more.

6. Mobile Big Data Analytics:

Big data processing is a hot topic for big data architecture in the cloud and mobile cloud.Data processing in the fog will be the key technique to tackle analytics on large scale of data generated by applications of IoT.

Fog computing can provide elastic resources to large-scale data process system without suffering from the drawback of cloud, high latency.A federation of fog and cloud can handle the big data acquisition, aggregation and preprocessing, reducing the data transportation and storage, balancing computation power on data processing.

For example, in a large scale environment monitoring system, local and regional data can be aggregated and mined at fog nodes providing timely feedback especially for an emergency case such as toxic pollution alert. While detailed and thorough analysis of computational-intensive tasks can be scheduled on the cloud side.

7.Smart Traffic Lights:

A video camera that senses an ambulance flashing lights can automatically change street lights to open lanes for the vehicle to pass through traffic. Smart streetlights interact locally with sensors and detect the presence of pedestrian and bikers, and measure the distance and speed of approaching vehicles. Intelligent lighting turns on once a sensor identifies movement and switches off as traffic passes.

Neighboring smart lights serving as Fog devices coordinate to create green traffic wave and send warning signals to approaching vehicles.Vehicle-to-Vehicle, the vehicle to access points, and access points to access points interactions enrich the application of Fog computing.

Image result for smart traffic lights
Smart Traffic Lights

8. Mobile computing system:

With various smart devices bringing strong computing and communication power to the palm of people’s hand at anywhere, a variety of mobile computing applications, e.g., virtual reality, sensing, and navigation, have emerged and resulted in the fundamental changes in the pattern that people’s lives.

Fog computing represents a scalable, sustainable and efficient solution to enable the convergence of cloud-based Internet and the mobile computing. The emergence of Fog computing is motivated by the predictable service demands of mobile users, and Fog computing is thus mainly used to fulfill the service requests on localized information. As a Fog server possesses hardware resources in three-dimensions (storage, compute and communications), three-dimensional service-oriented resource allocations are therefore the key of Fog computing. Moreover, with the three-tier Mobile-Fog cloud architecture and rich potential applications in both mobile networking and IoT.

9.Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs):

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are mission-critical systems engineered by a combination of cyber and physical systems respectively. These systems are tightly coupled, resource-constrained systems and have dynamic real-time applications.

Image result for cyber physical system
Cyber-Physical System

Enable Fog computing paradigms to provide the industry the necessary tools to revolutionize manufacturing systems on the Shop Floor.By using Fog computing to bring processing power, communication, and storage capacity to CPSs will allow them to coordinate activities and exchange information through services orchestrated and deployed on them.

10. Decentralized Smart Building Control:

In decentralized smart building control wireless sensors are installed to measure temperature, humidity, or levels of various gaseous components in the building atmosphere. This information can be exchanged among all sensors in the floor and the reading can be combined to form reliable measurements.

Using distributed decision making the fog devices react to data. The system gears up to work together to lower the temperature, input fresh air and output moisture from the air or increase humidity. Sensors respond to the movements by switching on or off the lights. Observance of the outlook the fog computing are applied to smart buildings
which can maintain basic needs of conserving external and internal energy.

For more details on Fog computing, you can refer to our other blog where you can obtain different research papers to gain deeper insight into the same. [Click here]

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